Individuals suffering from morbid obesity undergo gastric bypass surgery.When a person has been unable to sustain weight loss with appropriate diet and is affected by comorbid conditions, it leads to obesity. It can be life threatening and even affect the quality of life of the individual. Surgical procedure first involves division of stomach into a small pouch and large pouch and then positioning the small intestine to connect to both. The general term used for surgeries for morbid obesity is bariatric surgery. The surgery is usually painless since it is done under general anesthesia.
There are at least three types of gastric bypass surgeries:
Gastric band surgery
The gastric band operation reduces the capacity of the stomach with the help of a band. A small pouch is created in the upper stomach which can hold very little food. It is an adjustable gastric band, containing a circular balloon which is inflated. As you eat, the pouch fills up and the band restricts the passage of food to the lower part of the stomach.
Gastric sleeve surgery
Gastric sleeve surgery can be accomplished as an open surgery or a laparoscopic surgery. A large part of the stomach is removed leaving only a tube shaped gastric sleeve for a stomach. The detached stomach is closed with surgical staples.
Surgery for gastric ulcer
Peptic ulcers are caused by Helicobacter Pylori. A large gastric ulcer in the lining of the stomach presents with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. Quite often these ulcers heal by medication. These ulcers can bleed massively requiring transfusion of blood and sometimes surgery. Surgery for ulcers will be in the form of partial gastrectomy called as Gastric Surgery.
Surgery for duodenal ulcer
Duodenal ulcers can cause bleeding or sometimes gastric outlet obstruction causing persistent vomiting. An anastomosis between the stomach and the proximal loop is created for draining the contents of the stomach. Surgery for this ailment will be in the form of gastro-jejunostomy and truncal vagotomy
Surgery for cancer of the stomach
Stomach cancer, also called gastric cancer, develops due to abnormal growth and multiplication of the cells lining the inner layer of the stomach. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. The accumulation of these extra cells forms a mass of tissue called tumour.
According to the type of tissue in which the cancer originates stomach cancers are classified as:
Adenocarcinoma: It is the most common type of stomach cancer and develops from the cells in the mucosa, the innermost lining of the stomach. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: These tumours arise from the muscle layers of the stomach. They can range from being benign to malignant, when they are called sarcomas. Carcinoid cancers: These are rare cancers start in neuroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract.
Lymphomas: These rare cancers develop in the lymphatic tissue, and are usually treated by chemotherapy.The exact cause of stomach cancer is not known, however certain factors such as advancing age, gender, family history, H. pylori infection, diet, smoking, and certain medical conditions may increase your risk of developing stomach cancer.
In the early stages of stomach cancer, a patient may feel indigestion and stomach discomfort, a bloated feeling after eating, mild nausea, loss of appetite, and heartburn. As the cancer grows you may have weight loss, vomiting blood, blood in the stool, lumpiness in the stomach, tiredness and anaemia.
The diagnosis of stomach cancer is made by endoscopy and biopsy.
Surgery for corrosive injury of the stomach
Acid injury to the stomach due to accidental or suicidal ingestion of bathroom acid causes severe damage to the stomach, which will require emergency or elective surgery on the stomach like Bypass Gastric Surgery
Gastric Sleeve Surgery
Fundoplication for hiatus hernia.Severe heartburn due to hiatus hernia will at times require surgical treatment in the form of a fundoplication to reconstruct a new valve at the junction between the food pipe and stomach.